False knowledge without a basis in the nature or form of the respective object is the vrtti called perversive cognition, viparyaya.
Explanation: Viparyaya is a misconception, misapprehension, delusion and is the general name for all forms of false knowledge based on misapprehending an object. There are five forms of false cognition which the yogis consider the roots of unhappiness, based on the kleshas: Nescience/ignorance, asmitaa or egoism, attachment, hate, and fear of death. Viparyaya is destroyed by Pramaana, valid proof, as set forth in the previous sutra. A common example of viparyaya is seeing a rope and perceiving a snake. If the rope is carefully examined, correct knowledge will be obtained, and the false conception will be destroyed.